Mark Russell’s “En”-lightening Approach

Posted on October 16, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: equipment, riding, therapy, training.

“..elicit a calm thoughtful movement from the horse..”

While he is no longer with us to teach in person, Author and Horse trainer Mark Russell continues to explain the value of suppling the horse before and during the riding session in his book, “Lessons in Lightness”, available through his website. The book delves into the bio-mechanics of both saddle and ground work with engaging additions of his own personal life lessons that helped to shape his riding talent.   His web site: naturaldressage.com still provides insights through his articles. Here is an excerpt of one that was published in PRE Magazine:

The Pursuit of Artful Riding  (by Mark Russell)


author demonstrating: Lessons in Lightness

Artistry and lightness in riding is often an elusive goal for riders although paving the path to its development is really very simple. The integration of a few basic principles and adherence to them throughout the training process will create a scenario in which responsiveness and lightness will flourish.  The Reality We Present to the Horse is the Reality That He Lives In.. One of Natural Horsemanship’s most significant contributions to the development of the horse is its approach to the training process from the perspective of the horse. This includes an understanding of who our horse is and how he learns: qualities to which we temper our approach. The horse learns from us every moment we are with him and each of his behaviors, no matter how subtle, reflects a message he is sending us.  Importantly, this process includes mindfulness of ourselves: where we are emotionally, what information we are sending the horse through the reins and through our seat. There is a continuous back and forth conversation between us and our horses every moment we are with him whether intentional or not.

Artistic dressage forsakes force. A horse that has been brought down the path of learning in his comfort zone will easily learn balance without brace. Channels of energy will be opened in the relaxed horse which the rider can then direct. Once the basic principles become a staple in the horse’s training we can begin to advance the concept of relaxation through releases of the jaw, poll, neck, through the back and hind end of the horse. Flexion, impulsion, balance, and freedom of movement will thus come easily. An attentive and conversant rider creates a scenario where their requests can comfortably be followed by the horse. The outcome will be a horse who will be able to express free flowing energy and movement which is a pleasure to ride and beautiful to watch.

You can read the entire article at: Mark Russell Dressage

 

 

 

What is Riding ‘Forward’?

Posted on October 10, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: history, riding, training.

excerpts from:        Charles de Kunffy’s article in Dressage Today magazine:

photo from Dressage Today

photo from Dressage Today

Straighten your horse and ride it forward” was dressage master Gustav Steinbrecht’s admonition to equestrian scholars in the 19th century. Riders understood what he meant because they lived in an equestrian culture that spoke its own scholarly language with established meaning by tradition. However, in recent times, those not familiar with the intentions of Steinbrecht’s command have managed to misinterpret the urging of “forward” as a command to chase the horse into rushing, and then they have to pull on his mouth because he goes too fast. Remember, speed is also the enemy of impulsion.
When driving is misguided into demanding speed and agitated toward restraining hands, horses have nowhere to escape but upward with their croups. Their buttocks bounce with stilt-like, open-jointed hind legs—what we call “out behind” or “butt bouncing”—while heads are pulled behind the vertical with over-flexed necks. While these speedy chargers  often display a high, short and forced neck posture, let me assure you that they are the very documentations of horses on the forehand.
While this misplaced devotion to the “forward” part of the admonition has been championed, the “straighten your horse” part has been disastrously, continuously ignored. Yet straightening a horse is a precondition for the correct achievement of forward, the real meaning of which is locomotion with correctly articulating joints propelled by supple muscles. In other words, going forward means moving forward with strengthened and, therefore, engaged haunches.
Sadly, we often see a caricature of what was meant as guiding advise to those who lived in an equestrian culture of the past when horses were vastly important and horsemanship was an academically sound discipline. Too often we see tense horses running away with passenger riders balancing on their mouths. However, there are reasons for this misinterpretation and remedies for it.

from artuk

from artuk



The urge to run:
We all know the horse is an animal of flight. He survived by early notice of lurking predators (startling instincts) and outrunning them (the flight instinct). If he were to be overtaken and contacted by the predator while in flight, he would fight by bucking, kicking, or striking. Hence, when a startled horse takes flight his rider should not act as his predator and try to pull him down, but rather accompany him in an unrestricted partnership in flight fully reverent to the horse’s survival instinct. Had horses not been strong and swift, we would have nothing to ride today for their ancestors would have been eaten. Only those horses alert enough to be startled in time to run fast to escape their predators remained in the genetic pool. A horse can take off in full speed even from a halt. Therefore, the halt is also a “movement” because it is latent energy, potential for flight.
The instinct to flight was what attracted mankind to riding horses. A fast-running horse was a treasure for traveling and military action. Desire for speed became one of the guiding principles in breeding horses. Indeed, it was racing that contributed considerably to the creation of the contemporary “super horse.” Without the horse’s forward instinct and energy for flight, we would have nothing to tame, shape and ride for our precisely controlled transportation. However, the horse’s ability to speed is just the starting point. It is the energy reserve and the raw material that by taming and training is groomed and altered into the wondrous variety of movements a correctly gymnasticized horse can offer his rider.

GreyEagle2

Kyra Kurkland riding

Kyra Kurkland riding

How to avoid running: Begin by developing an adhesive seat. The rider’s seat is a “transformer” whose role is to modify the energy emitting from the horse’s haunches. Remember, riding is controlled transportation, not just where we go and at what speed, but how effortlessly we arrive due to the schooled use of the haunches. The horse needs a relaxed, well-balanced tempo in order to take a longer stride and step with his hind legs past or into the footprints left by the front legs. Riders must learn to induce the correct posture of the horse (longitudinal flexion) and only then influence the level of engagement in his haunches. Horses not in a correct posture should not be driven, because they cannot engage to move and are forced to proceed under duress. With gradually increasing strength and skills, the horse begins to shorten the distance between his hocks and the bridle. That distance could be likened to the string of a bow, which could be “tightened” or “loosened” by the rider. According to the engagement of the horse, the “bow string” will determine the amount of kinetic energy in the longitudinal flexion of the horse’s body. To achieve this, riders must slow the horse to a tempo that allows him to move by articulating the joints in his haunches evenly and unencumbered by the reins. Slow the horse until he is balanced, taken off his dwelling shoulders and gathered more weight toward his haunches.  Slowing the tempo allows the rider to create impulsion, the indispensable foundation of engagement of the haunches. “Impulsion” refers to the horse’s ability to use all joints in his haunches with equal and unhindered articulation and thereby produce an efficient—not rapid—source of energy. Impulsion improves with the gradual increasing articulation of the joints. Impulsion, not running, is the source for strengthening and suppling the joints. Impulsion is based on the taming of the flight instinct and altering it into effortless efficiency. The rider’s understanding of the goals of training and his knowledge of the means to attain them comes from Baroque ideology. This means that the horse’s natural potential can evolve into a monument of art only by the intelligent schooling of his rider. In other words, correct schooling makes the horse more beautiful. It all begins with “Straighten your horse and ride it forward.”

Classical Equitation by Charles de Kunffy

Posted on October 8, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: history, riding, training.
image from equinethos

image from equinethos

(Excerpt)    Classical equitation is an art. Humans have unique attributes that take information (knowledge) and analyze it, then form syntheses and arrive at understandings, insights and the possession of wisdom. This is what enables mankind to create art. For the classical equestrian, his horse is his source of information, but without analysis, synthesis, insight, understanding and, finally, wisdom, he will never know the art of riding. Instructors are custodians of the equestrian arts. They must encourage, inspire and advise their students, but they cannot make them great riders. That remains the pupil’s job.  The word “dressage” is used precisely because of its double connotation for taming and training. One cannot train any animal without having its full attention and focus on the trainer. Taming—focusing the horse’s attention— is difficult because he is genetically determined by instinct and is programmed for multitasking. The rider’s job is to gradually replace the horse’s instinctive behavior with one of utter focus on his rider. This enormous change in the horse’s behavior— disconnecting from his instincts and focusing instead on his rider—can be earned only by a rider deserving of the horse’s total trust. Teach your students that horses trust consistency of behavior and kindness much like people do. A good rider teaches the horse by showing him what he wants patiently and repeatedly. A good rider does not overreact. He controls his own emotions and impulses much like a well brought up person should. Success is born out of empathy for the horse to the point of understanding the world through his point of view. The humility that comes from understanding that there are points of views in variance with our own is a guiding virtue in equitation.      Horses progress by being taught. It is a process opposite of disciplining. It is based on repeatedly showing what we want them to do and aiding, not punishing, them. This is what helps them figure out how to do what the rider wants. Horses are not proactive; they are merely reactive. The horse has no plan to disobey.    The rider must discover the reason for a mistake, and the instructor must assist him. The rider must show the horse what he wants, help him understand it and give him the skills to perform it. This means developing a plan for your student that gradually and systematically increases the horse’s strength and skills to reach the goals we want to achieve (while avoiding the monotony of drilling).

Horses are expected to startle. Startling is a life-preserving, inherited behavior that we must understand and accept. However, shying is induced by incorrect rider behavior. A shying horse perceives his rider as an enemy or attacking predator. When a horse is startled or takes flight from an imaginary danger, the rider is supposed to take flight with him, becoming a partner to the behavior. This reassures the horse of his safety. However, if the rider tenses and attacks his mouth with rein restrictions, the horse learns to fear his rider. That is why horses begin to shy. They will never understand why you want them to visit an object of imagined danger.  When a horse startles or shies, he becomes tense and stiff. Making him supple again starts with first calming his mind. Suppleness is a concept based on changeability, adjustability and controllability of the horse’s energies, which include his posture, his strides and his level of collection and engagement. The horse’s rhythm and tempo should also gradually become more precisely adjustable. There is no end to the development of suppleness through changeability. The rider should pursue suppleness— adjustability and energy freely flowing through the horse—from the first day of training to the last. Anything done with a tense, stiff horse is harmful to him. A young horse’s mind may wander, and he will alternate between periods of attention to the rider’s aids or attention to the environment, but a well-trained horse will remain on the rider’s aides because he trusts them. for the full article go to Facebook: Dressage Today

Why use a Dressage Whip?

Posted on October 4, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: equipment, riding, training.

*article by Karl Mikolka

photo Amd Bronkhorst

photo Amd Bronkhorst

 

Why Riders Need Whips
I frequently encounter riders who refuse to carry a whip for two main reasons. The first is always that their horses are afraid of the whip. I tell these riders that their horses’ fear stems from lack of trust, confidence and obedience: the three pillars that a rider must erect to ensure success in training. 
The second excuse is that the horses do not need the whip. This might be correct: The horses might not need a whip, but the riders do. Riding with a whip in the proper length of three to four feet requires a very relaxed wrist and a good feel in the hand. Feeling exactly when the whip makes contact with the horse’s side and maintaining this contact while in motion is possible only when a rider has acquired a proper arm-elbow-shoulder alignment and is relaxed in the wrist. All of that, of course, will improve sensitivity in the hands and, in the long run, will benefit the horse tremendously.

The gateway to the circle of aids is a horse well tuned to the whip. This is a horse who…
• is in front of the whip. He moves forward without fear or hesitation to a soft touch of the whip.
• is responsive to invisible aids. He pays attention to the softest movement form the rider.
• is guided by the rider’s legs. He withholds nothing that is possible and exerts himself as directed by his rider’s legs.
The ultimate goal of this type of training is to create a horse who “drives himself,” a horse who goes forward merely because he respects the presence of the rider in the saddle. Of course, this response shall not even remotely resemble one in which a horse races in fear of his rider. Forward always indicates a dignified, positive reaction on the part of the horse.

Each horse reacts differently to the touches of the whip. Some twitch their skin, others swish their tails, a few kick out and some react not at all. None of these is correct. The only correct response is one in which the hind legs become more lively, stepping more forward and under and flex more visibly. This is a true forward response. It is never correct for a horse to react to the whip by trying to run from it or by throwing himself into the rider’s hands. 
The old masters used to advise: “Do as little as possible but as much as necessary to reach your goals.”
It will take constant alertness on the rider’s part to never allow the horse to forget his level of sensitivity. If the touch of the whip creates liveliness in the horse’s hind legs, resulting in free forward motion, then the first stage of the circle of the aids has been established. Only then can the rider proceed to the second stage: the use of the legs in order to bring the horse on the bit, to make the horse relaxed and to prepare the horse to accept the half halts, in other words, to close the circle of the aids.

When we say that the legs should mainly act as guiding rails, we must not forget that guiding a horse on something like a circle involves a certain degree of bend if the horse is to conform to the circle. The bending around the rider’s inner leg is the foundation for all two-track movements, which are best achieved when the inner leg of the rider guides the inner hind leg of the horse slightly in the direction of the rider’s outside heel when working on a circle, riding a turn or passing through a corner. This action, known as “enlarging,” will bring the inner hind leg of the horse better underneath the rider and closer to the center of gravity.

bending around garrocha pole

bending around garrocha pole

Without acceptance of the rider’s outside leg, no horse can be truly on the outside rein. It is indeed a wonderful experience to be able to control the entire horse with just a single rein and the seat, of which the outside leg is an extension. Every dressage horse must eventually reach this stage, and the best way to achieve it is through work on the circle. We see here again the interrelationship between the circle as a ring figure and the circle of aids. Forward on the whip, enlarging away from the inner-leg pressure into the outside rein and from there to and through the rider’s seat over the horse’s back and—with half halts—into the horse’s hind legs to complete the circle of aids.

If the use of the whip is misunderstood, so too — among a broad majority of riders—is the application of the legs. Nothing is more detrimental to the training of a horse than legs that constantly kick, push, squeeze or noodle. Not only do such legs kill all sensitivity in a horse’s sides but they also teach a horse to stiffen his belly muscles in order to block against these pushes or kicks. Such tightening in the torso renders all influence by the rider ineffectual.

Credit: Micki Dobson As you hold your hand slightly away from your normal rein position, twist your wrist to the left (in this case) to lift it up, then flex your wrist to bring the whip down, onto your thigh

Credit: Micki Dobson As you hold your hand slightly away from your normal rein position, twist your wrist to the left (in this case) to lift it up, then flex your wrist to bring the whip down, onto your thigh

Which One? How Long?

Whips come in all shapes and sizes. When choosing a whip, find one that fits your hand. Also, look for a length that is appropriate to your build and your horse’s size. If you are a tiny person on a big horse or a person with rather large thighs, you probably need a longer whip. If you are small and riding a small horse you should choose a smaller whip. A “good” whip also stings a bit and bounces well when you flex your wrist and use it against your thigh. So be sure to try several whips before buying. Another aspect to pay attention to is the button or knob at the end of the whip. The button should be large enough that you don’t have to grip it to keep from losing it. When allowed in [USEF] or USDF competitions, the whip cannot be longer than four feet. Editor’s note: Today your whip can be no longer than 47.2 inches (120 cm) including lash.

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This story was first published in the November 1996 issue of Dressage Today. Austrian-born Karl Mikolka was a chief rider with the Spanish Riding School and later coach to the Brazilian Olympic dressage team. He later moved to the United States and worked with the Tempel Lipizzan Stallions in Wadsworth, Illinois.

Dangerous Horse at Mealtime?

Posted on September 30, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: health, history, therapy, training.

Some horses are a threat to both people and other horses at mealtime. Behavior disorders that you may see displayed range from pinning ears back and shaking heads to an all out assault as shown in the statue in the photo above. Animals who cannot be trusted are a serious menace to others around them. If they cannot be rehabilitated quickly, they may end up euthanized. Of course, the larger the animal with dangerous behavior, the more quickly the decision to remove it must be made.

Training methods for correcting defensive eaters abound on the internet.For an intelligent and humane approach we recommend the article: “Re-training the Defensive Eater“.  You can also visit our Equi-TV page for some great training videos this month.

Dorsal Wall Lifting

Posted on September 20, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: handicap, health, history, hoofcare, therapy.

Theory of laminitis explained

(exerpts from: equinehoof.co.uk)

The easiest way to explain this new model for laminitis is to look at the hoof as a simplified structure, broken down to its basic components, this enables an easier understanding of what is happening.

Fig 1: Normal hoof section growth

Fig 1: Normal hoof section growth
Fig 2: Chronic laminitis hoof section growth

Fig 2: Chronic laminitis hoof section growth

To examine the effects of normal and laminitic hoof growth, a flat rectangle of hoof can be used to represent a section of hoof (Fig. 1), as new horn is produced in equal amounts on each side of the rectangle, the hoof section grows without distortion.

When laminitic hoof growth is examined in the same way, one side of the hoof is growing faster than the other, horn produced under these conditions will grow in a curved or distorted manner (Fig. 2), the lower extremity of the horn will be deflected forward.

By increasing the complexity of the model to a simple hoof capsule consisting of three sides, a front or dorsal wall and two sides that represent the medial and lateral quarters, we now have an approximation to a hoof capsule.

In the normal simplified hoof the dorsal and quarter areas are growing at similar rates and the hoof grows down in a consistent way (Fig. 3).

Fig 3: Normal hoof capsule growth

Fig 3: Normal hoof capsule growth
Fig 4: Chronic laminitic hoof capsule growth

Fig 4: Chronic laminitic hoof capsule growth

In the laminitic foot the quarter areas are growing faster than the dorsal wall and the hoof grows in a curved manner to accommodate this difference (Fig. 4). The dorsal wall now has a dished dorsal surface, caused by the curved shape of the medial and lateral walls deflecting the dorsal hoof wall forward.

A revised interpretation of acute Laminitis

It is proposed that when a horse encounters a systemic disease that is known to cause laminitis, one of the first events will be an increase in rate of growth at the quarters (Fig. 8).

Fig 8: Simple acute laminitic hoof capsule model

Fig 8: Simple acute laminitic hoof capsule model

This increase in heel growth does not initially cause pain but eventually after a period of time, which may be hours or several days, the hoof capsule will distort beyond the limit that can be tolerated by the laminae. The distorting hoof capsule will then traumatise the laminae and tissues that are situated between the hoof and distal phalanx (pedal bone). In the early stages, any hoof distortion may not be obvious to the naked eye but at a laminar level it will cause pain. (Fig. 9).

Fig 9: Acute laminitis hoof capsule growth

Fig 9: Acute laminitis hoof capsule growth

This delay between the triggering event and the onset of pain is consistent with a developmental or pre-acute phase of laminitis, while the trauma induced in the sensitive tissues will cause the symptoms that have previously been identified as a vascular crisis.

In the early stages of the acute phase, distortion will be concentrated at the distal border of the dorsal hoof wall. As the heels continue to grow the dorsal wall will be elevated away from the distal phalanx in a peeling motion as the distortion migrates up the dorsal wall (Fig.10 – Arrow B). Peeling provides a better explanation for the separation observed between the distal phalanx (pedal bone) and the dorsal hoof wall, it is the most efficient method of mechanically separating two strongly bonded surfaces and requires less force, peeling would also be very painful. When the peeling process has separated enough laminar attachment, the distal phalanx will be detached from the dorsal hoof wall.

As the distal dorsal wall is lifted, the solar horny plate will be pulled upward towards the distal border of the distal phalanx. This upward movement of the horny sole will compress the solar corium, causing pain within the solar corium and compromise blood flow by entrapment (Fig. 10 – Arrow C). Bruising is often subsequently seen in this area of the sole after laminitis and is evidence of this trauma to the solar corium.

As the distal dorsal wall is lifted, the proximal border of the dorsal hoof wall will be pressing inward, again causing pain and compromising blood flow (Fig. 10 – Arrow A). Horn growth at the proximal border of the dorsal hoof wall is often restricted in severest forms of acute laminitis.

Fig 10: Acute phase - Hoof distortion

Fig 10: Acute phase – Hoof distortion
By including the hoof capsule in a causal role in laminitis, the qualities of the hoof can be seen as influencing the intensity of pain felt by the laminitic animal. The level of pain experienced during the initial phases of acute laminitis can be correlated to the shape and strength of the hoof capsule. In round feet, hoof distortion will spread from the toe medially and laterally towards each heel, causing the whole hoof to expand open, this will predispose the distal phalanx to sinking as a greater area of laminar attachment is lost. Long narrow hoof capsule shapes will tend to predispose the foot to rotation as most of the distortion will be concentrated at the toe of the hoof.

This new interpretation of laminitis is still in it’s formative stages, it is hoped that further research will be directed toward confirming that this model is a more accurate account of the changes seen in the feet of equines suffering with laminitis. Time will show how accurate this proposed model is. Whatever the outcome of this research, we must continue to look for ways to help the laminitic equine.

Trimming the Laminitic Hoof

Posted on September 19, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: breed, health, hoofcare, therapy.

laminitis effect on hoof

Crucial information from: johnthevet.co.uk

Remember that when the clinical signs of laminitis are seen, separation of the laminae is already occurring.
• Prompt attention to your horse is imperative to try to minimize these changes.
• If your horse develops laminitis contact your vet.
• If the horse will pick up its feet easily, apply frog supports.
• Walking the horse is contra-indicated but may be necessary to remove the horse from the cause of the laminitis e.g. from pasture.
• In this case it may be safe to walk the horse a short distance, with frog supports on, if it can walk relatively easily.
• If the horse is very reluctant to walk, wait for your vet’s arrival.
• It may be necessary to box your horse back to the stable.
• Stable the horse on a deep bed so that it is happy to lie down if it wants to.

When deciding on what angle the feet are trimmed, the question that we have to consider is whether the pull of the deep flexor tendon is of more significance than the effect of the weight of the horse on a tilted pedal bone.
It would appear that most are agreed that the aim [of the trim] is to establish weight bearing “along the entire solar surface” (O’Grady), or to “all parts of the hoof capsule” (Strasser) and that this is brought about by trimming the foot with a P3 solar surface that is parallel to the ground.

If we trim the feet with a ground-parallel pedal bone:
As weight is applied down the leg, the load is spread more evenly around all the laminae rather than particularly down the dorsal wall.
It will also reduce the pressure applied by P3 on the solar corium at the toe.

This will hopefully reduce the pain in the feet and with it the reflex contracture of the deep flexor muscle and thus reducing the tension in the deep flexor tendon. (I now advise massage of the deep flexor muscle following trimming of the heels).
There should be less pressure applied by the extensor process of a rotated P3 on the coronary papillae of the dorsal hoof wall and this should allow more even growth of the hoof.
laminitis
There will be a more even pressure around the whole of the coronet and this will mean that new horn growth is more likely to grow down parallel to the dorsal surface of P3 allowing the basement membrane that has not been irrevocably damaged to bind, as best it can, the epidermal and dermal laminae together providing a stronger and more stable foot.
Chronic founder cases are unlikely, certainly initially, to be involved in great athletic activity, but when there is sufficient new hoof growth and stability is achieved we can then trim the foot to a more “normal” angle.

However, if we lower the heel we will have a toe that is “long”, particularly if there is already distortion of the dorsal hoof wall. It is imperative that the toe is taken back sufficiently to allow easy break-over and thus avoid any pulling on the weakened laminae by the dorsal wall otherwise it will be pulled away from the bone.

If we leave P3 rotated:

  1. The centre of mass is moved posteriorly, thus putting more weight down the dorsal wall and pressure on the solar corium.
  2. There is likely to be more distortion of the coronary papillae of the dorsal hoof wall.
  3. This will, in turn, result in slower growth of horn at the toe compared to the heel.

Coffin Bone Remodeling

Posted on September 14, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: handicap, health, history, hoofcare, therapy.

Healthy Hoof Interior

New information regarding the changes in the coffin bone of the hoof have been released. The Fischer Equine Lameness Group have provided their in depth results into the remodeling of bone in the hoof during the time it remains shod. This information is a must for all horse owners!
From the “Heal the Hoof” web site: Sheri and her husband Mark, an orthopedic surgeon, fly internationally and present lectures on Wolfs Law of Orthopedics and how this affects the equine distal limb.  Their presentations have been given in Europe and throughout the US.  Recently, Sheri has lectured to the veterinarian students at the University of Minnesota and several veterinarian clinics throughout the US.

“Bone Remodeling of the Equine Distal Limb”
(We strongly recommend reading the complete article)

Excerpts from their article:   Wolfe’s law refers to how bone adapts itself to a variety of influences. Bones can remodel in a generalized fashion – that is, affecting the whole bone, or even the whole skeleton; or they can remodel in a very specific fashion in response to a local influence. It is important to remember that bone remodeling is a balance, and many factors can influence the balance, so that the net effect is either bone gain or bone loss. Most of the clinical situations we encounter in both human and equine situations involve bone loss to an extent to which problems occur.  According to Wolfe’s Law, failure to stress and stimulate bone by the mechanical forces generated by weight-bearing and muscles results in the activation of osteoclasts, leading to generalized loss of bone content and ultimately strength. The importance of exercise with respect to bone strength is well known in many human studies. This would suggest that any program which includes any significant amount of stall rest would promote the loss of bone. In a similar manner that cast treatment or immobilization can protect bone from stress, resulting in bone loss, application of a mechanical stress-sharing (i.e., aiding the bone in bearing a stress) device to bone can have the same effect. An example of this would be the use of horseshoes. An example of altered hoof weight bearing stresses affecting bone would be a deformation of the hoof capsule resulting from the horseshoe. The horseshoe puts direct pressure on the sides of the hoof, causing contraction and then bone loss due to altered stresses. Removal of shoes, depending on the timing as well as other influences, may allow the coffin bone to remodel. It seems obvious, however, that promoting a situation which several million years of evolution adapted the coffin bone for – that is, not applying horseshoes and keeping the coffin bone ground parallel within the hoof capsule – would make the most biological sense. In other words, never putting shoes on the horse, and keeping the coffin bone ground parallel for even distribution of stress along the edges of the coffin bone, would make the most sense for the bone according to the arguments advanced in this report.

In most cases, bone loss is recoverable once the conditions are changed to promote physiologic stress on the bone and to allow for the inflow of nutrients.

Hoof Deviation Terms

Posted on September 6, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: handicap, health, history, hoofcare, therapy.

 

coffin bone dropping into sole

coffin bone dropping into sole

The above x-rays indicate the horse’s struggle for soundness when the coffin bone is affected.
Many readers have asked for more information regarding the terms used for hoof deviations.
The following should help:
Rotation of coffin bone: the coffin bone (P3) of the horse has dropped downward toward the interior bottom (sole) of the hoof. This means it has separated from the flesh (laminae) that hold it to the toe wall. In extreme cases the sharp point of the bone can fall far enough to cut through the sole of the hoof. The bone is still connected to the interior laminae on the sides, or quarters, of the hoof. Most cases can be fixed through correct trimming and hoof boots.
Sinking of the coffin bone: the coffin bone is completely detached from all the laminae of the hoof wall. The coffin bone rests on the interior sole of the hoof. Correct trimming and boots ease this problem but I have no documentation of a full correction yet.
White Line Separation: the flesh (laminae) are in process of separating from the coffin bone. Again, fixed through correct trimming.
Flaring: in most cases,the laminae have finally separated from the coffin bone resulting in rotation, or dropping, of the toe portion of the coffin bone. Oftentimes flaring and white line are used synonymously though there is a difference.
Mechanical Founder/Road Founderof the hoof: This is the term used for sinker & rotation of coffin bone which came about due to hard ground,shoeing,or the daily wear of a long toe that eventually separates the wall from the coffin bone.
Laminitis Founder:the laminae (flesh holding the coffin bone to the hoof wall) become inflamed and dropped their attachment to the coffin bone. The source of the inflammation must be determined to stop the founder in this case. Typically the cause is the diet and the shoeing of the horse; other causes include recent trauma,squalor conditions,abusive handling.
To understand in depth the care and trim required for Founder read Marjorie Smith’s full explanation.

The Military Horse of 1863

Posted on September 3, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: breed, equipment, health, history, training.

Sherman

General Sherman

The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the Civil War since it ended the Confederate General Robert E Lee’s advancement northward to conquer New England. The State of Massachusetts had sent among its troops the 9th Battery Mounted Division with Captain John Bigelow in charge, who was severely wounded early on during the battle on July 2nd. The Mass Battery brought 110 men: 10 were lost, 18 wounded;  but of the infantry mounts – 88 horses of the 9th were killed on the battlefield. The Northern, or Union Soldiers, were 90,000 in number; they lost 30,000.  The Southern, or Confederate Soldiers, came with 75,000 men; they lost 27,000. Horses estimated killed in battle at Gettysburg: 1.5 million horses dead. Said Capt Bigelow: “The enemy opened a fearful musketry fire, men and horses were falling like hail…. Sergeant after Sergt., was struck down, horses were plunging and laying about all around….”

Horses from Battle at Little Round Top/Pictures from Library of Congress,Civil War Collection


Requiem for the War Horse

No battle fought was theirs by choice, nor came victory from their breath,

But they trotted forward just as ordered – into bullets, swords, and certain death.

Their brave hearts beating in silent courage, in fear that no voice would tell

They stood as targets, lay down as barriers to protect riders from being killed.

They labored for our liberty, they forfeited their lives,

Faithful military horses one and all — felled by cannons, bullets, and knives.

They bore the blows and fatal wounds to save their mounted friends–

Who had only saddles but no horses, when each battle came to end.

The war horse asked no questions, sought no medals, nor decorated pins

Just blinked an eye and charged ahead, trusting they’d go home again.

We salute with honor their deeds of valor: their sacrifice, pain, and torture.

For they were more than just mere transport….

They were the humbly silent:  Equine Military Soldiers.

Reader’s comment: I read once the way they trained the horses to charge into the face of fire was to have them charge a line of men. Then when they reached the line the men would pet them and praise them. They worked up to firing blanks when they charged. Then they would be petted and praised again. By the people firing as well as their riders, of course. There is an excellent video which documents the use and sacrifice of the 75,000 mules and horses that participated in the battle at Gettysburg. It is called, appropriately, “The Horses of Gettysburg.”

One correction, there were not 1.5 million horses and mules killed at Gettysburg alone. The estimate of horses and mules killed during the entire war are 1 – 1.5 million. In further news, for those interested in the incident with the 9th Mass. artillery, there is a good book titled “History of the Ninth Massachusetts Battery” by Levi W. Baker. Baker was a member of that battery. The illustrations are by Charles Reed, their bugler.

The sacrifice the men and horses of this battery made, stopped the Confederate Army from pouring through a large gap in the Union lines. There is actually going to be a reenactment of the Battle of Gettysburg in July 2013 (150 yrs) in which the 9th Mass. Artillery will reenact their part. Another interesting book for cavalry buffs is “The Battle of Brandy Station”, by Eric J. Wittenberg. It is North America’s lagest cavalry action ever, and took place just almost a month before Gettysburg. Mahalo, Steve

Thanks for your correction on the number dead for the whole war. Will look up your references also! Jerri



 

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